08/16/2022

Set is an unordered collection of items. So, Every element is unique (no duplicates) and must be immutable.
then, The set itself is mutable (we can add or remove items).
So that, Use to perform mathematical operations like union, intersection, symmetric difference.

Syntax :

Firstly I have to open pycharm.

 { } # set use curly braces 
 set1 = {1,2,3}
 set2 = {1,”helo”,3,11.45} //mixed data
 try this 
 set3 = {1,3,5,’h’,1,’h’} ????
 my_set = {1, 2, [3, 4]} ????

moreover, set cannot have mutable items.

But we can make set from a list,

>>> set([1,2,3,2]) 
{1, 2, 3}

Empty set in Python.

at the last like the list we can not create the empty set like.

 a = { }
 type(a) //out put : <class 'dict'>
 But for this we have to use set() function Like : 
 b=set()
 type(b) // output : <class 'set'>

Changing the set in Python :

indexing has no meaning. We cannot access or change an element of the set using indexing or slicing.
So, We can add single elements using the method add().
Then, Multiple elements can be added using the update() method.
So, The update() method can take tuples, lists, strings, or other sets as its argument.
moreover, In all cases, duplicates are avoided.
A particular item can be removed from the set using methods like discard() and remove().
While using discard() if the item does not exist in the set, it remains unchanged. But remove() will raise an error in such a condition.

set in python,

We can remove and return an item using the pop() method.
Set being unordered, there is no way of determining which item will be popped. It is completely arbitrary.
We can also remove all items from a set using clear().

Set Operation in Python:

Set operations like union, intersection, difference, and symmetric difference.
then, We can do this with operators or methods.
Union: Union is performed using | operator. So, The same can accomplish using the method union().

a = {1,2,3}
b = {2,5,7}
a | b // output : set([1, 2, 3, 5, 7])
a.union(b) // output : set([1, 2, 3, 5, 7])
b.union(a)
c = a|b
print c //output : set([1, 2, 3, 5, 7])

Set operation

Intersection:

Elements that are common in both sets. So, The intersection performed using & operator.
so, The same can accomplish using the method intersection().

a & b
set([2])
>>> a.intersection(b)
set([2])
>>> b.intersection(a)
set([2])

Set difference

(A – B) is a set of elements that are only in A but not in B. Similarly, B – A is a set of element
in B but not in A.
Difference performed using – operator. The same can accomplish using the method difference().

a-b
set([1, 3])
>>> b-a
set([5, 7])
a.difference(b)
set([1, 3])

Symmetric Difference :

A and B is a set of elements in both A and B except those common in both.
The symmetric difference performed using the ^ operator. The same can accomplish using the
method symmetric_difference().

a^b
set([1, 3, 5, 7])
>>> b^a
set([1, 3, 5, 7])
>>> a.symmetric_difference(b)
set([1, 3, 5, 7])

Frozen set

Its elements cannot change once assigned.
Frozen sets are immutable sets. Sets that are mutably un-hashable so, can’t use as dictionary keys.
On the other hand, frozen sets are hashable and can use as keys to a dictionary.
Created using the function frozenset().
This datatype supports methods like copy(), difference(), intersection(), isdisjoint(), issub
set(), issuperset(), symmetric_difference() and union().
Being immutable it does not have a method that adds or removes elements.

set1 = frozenset([1,2,3,4])
set2 = frozenset(['a',1,2,4,'b'])
 set1|set2
Output : frozenset(['a', 1, 2, 3, 4, 'b'])
set1.isdisjoint(set2)
Output : False
set1.difference(set2)
Output : frozenset([3])
Try this : set1.add('j') ???

Develop below program for set

Write a program for a set that shows the membership operator’s use.
Iterate the set using for loop as well as while loop.
Program to Illustrate Different Set Operations like union, intersection, difference, symmetric difference.
Write a program for set which show the use of copy(),
issubset(), issuperset(), all() and any()

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