The 18th century was the era of the great mechanical systems accompanying the Industrial Revolution.

Major inventions during Industrial Revolution includes Textile Manufacturing, Iron Industry, Steam Power, Machine Tools, Chemicals, Cement, Paper Machine, Agriculture, Mining,
Transportation etc.

The 19th century was the age of the steam engine.

During the 20th century, the key technology was information gathering, processing, and then distribution.

Among other developments, we saw the installation of worldwide telephone networks, the invention of the radio and television, the birth and unprecedented growth of the computer industry, and the launching of communication satellites.


In OSI model there are seven layer of network. This seven layer of network consistent how network will work. So we always use internet, network, data from network. So, we really want to know how data are transmitted between the network.

  1. The firstly, Application Layer.
  2. secondly, Presentation Layer.
  3. Thirdly, Session Layer.
  4. Transport Layer.
  5. Network Layer.
  6. Data Link Layer.
  7. Physical Layer.

Physical Layer -1 of OSI model

Transmission media, Magnetic media, Twisted pair, coaxial cable, Fiber optic, Wireless transmission, Electromagnetic spectrum, Radio transmission, Microwave transmission, Infrared, lightwave.

The physical layer -II of OSI model

  1. The Telephone system structure, Local loop, Transmission impairment, Modem, Fibre in local
  2. Trunks and multiplexing, FDM, TDM, Switching, Circuit switching, crossbar, and space division.
  3. multiplexing
  4. Time-division switching, Cellular radio, Cordless phone, Analog phone, Advance telephone system, Communication satellite, Geosynchronous satellite, low-orbit satellite, satellite versus fiber.

Data Link Layer of OSI model

Design issues, Framing, Error control, Flow control, Error-detection, and correction static,
Sliding window protocol.

Network Layer of OSI model

  1. Routing algorithm, Shortest path, Flooding, Flow-based, Distance vector, Link state, Hierarchical.
  2. Broadcast, Multicast routing, Network layer on the internet, The IP protocol, IP address, subnets.
  3. Internet control protocol, IGRP, OSPF, EIGRP,BGP,CIDR, IPV6.
seven layer of osi model

Transport Layer

Transport services, Element of the transport protocol, So, The internet transport protocol (TCP and UDP), Congestion control, Principle of reliable data transfer.

Application layer

Network security, DNS, Electronic Mail, The worldwide web.


Communication describes the process by which two or more computer devices transfer data, instruction, and at the last information.

Components of Computer Network

  1. Firstly, two or more computers.
  2. secondly, Cables as links between the computers.
  3. Thirdly, A network interfacing card(NIC) on each computer.
  4. fourthly, Switches.
  5. Software called an operating system(OS).

Applications of Computer Network

A computer network is defined as the interconnection of two or more computers. So, It is done to enable the computers to communicate and share available resources.


  1. firstly, Sharing of resources such as printers.
  2. Secondly, Sharing of expensive software and database.
  3. Thirdly, Communication from one computer to another computer.
  4. Fourthly, Exchange of data and information among users via the network.
  5. Sharing of information over geographically wide areas.

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By Tanmay

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